January 15-19, 2011
Town & Country Convention Center
San Diego, CA
Woonsu Kim , Se-Young Lee , Seongwon Seo
The purpose of this study was to identify evolutionary adaptations that have occurred in cattle metabolism. Metabolic genes present in duplicate in the cattle genome but found a single ortholog in the human and mouse genomes were identified and carefully examined to determine whether the gene duplication was due to assembly problems or gene evolution. Cattle metabolic reconstruction was updated for the latest cattle genome build, Btau_4.0, using a new bioinformatic pipeline and Pathway-Tools. Using an orthology table for human, mouse and cattle generated by BioMart (http://www.biomart.org), a total of 1,569 genes out of 21,727 human protein coding genes in the Ensembl release 59 were identified to have one-to-one mouse and one-to-many cattle orthologs. Among these, 95 genes were found in the cattle metabolic reconstruction. Comprehensive analysis of sequence similarity at the nucleotide and protein levels and synteny of selected mammals (cattle, human, mouse, dog, and horse) followed by intensive manual examination revealed seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome: AANAT (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase), ACADM (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, C-4 to C-12 straight chain), BPGM (2,3-bisphosphoglycerate mutase), COASY (coenzyme A synthase), HAAO (3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase), ODC1 (ornitine decarboxylase 1), SOD1 (superoxide dismutase 1), which may impact on 13 metabolic pathways. For instance, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM) is involved in glucose metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) and ACADM encodes an enzyme for branched-chain amino acid degradation, alanine biosynthesis, and fatty acid ß-oxidation. The duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome suggest additional metabolic adaptations of cattle compared to human and mouse.